SOM 1.x script porting guide

Porting computational scripts from SOM 1.x to SOM 2.0 means switching from Python 2.7 to Python 3 and from TRIQS 1.4 to TRIQS 3.1. This guide covers only the SOM-specific portion of changes that need to be made. Please, refer to the official Python porting guide to learn about the general language changes introduced in Python 3, such as print() becoming a function instead of a statement, and the new semantics of the integer division. There is also a page about porting applications to TRIQS 3.0 provided by TRIQS’ developers.

Python modules

Following a convention change for naming of TRIQS applications, the main Python module of SOM has been renamed.

### SOM 1.x ###
from pytriqs.applications.analytical_continuation.som import Som
### SOM 2.0 ###
from som import Som

Functions implementing the statistical analysis of ensembles of spectral functions are collected in a new module,

### SOM 2.0 ###
from som.spectral_stats import (spectral_integral,

Construction of the Som object

  • It is now possible to provide full covariance matrices as an alternative to estimated error bars upon construction of the Som object.

    ### SOM 1.x ###
    cont = Som(g, error_bars, kind=kind, norms=norms)
    ### SOM 2.0 ###
    cont_eb = Som(g, error_bars, kind=kind, norms=norms)
    cont_cm = Som(g,

    The optional argument filtering_levels improves stability of the algorithm when the covariance matrices are used.

  • When continuing fermionic Green’s functions, there is an option to enforce the particle-hole symmetry of the spectrum by passing kind="FermionGfSymm" instead of kind="FermionGf".

  • Definition of the integral kernels for kind="BosonAutoCorr" has been changed: The spectral function \(A(\epsilon)\) is now defined on the whole energy axis instead of \(\epsilon\in[0;\infty[\), while the kernels gained an extra coefficient \(1/2\). It has been observed that the new definition makes the algorithm better reproduce results of the BosonCorr kernels for the same input data. This change has an implication on scripting, both BosonCorr and BosonAutoCorr expect the same normalization constants in norms from now on (with SOM 1.x one had to divide the constants by 2 for BosonAutoCorr).

  • If normalization constants for the BosonCorr or BosonAutoCorr spectra are not known a priori, they can be estimated from the input data by calling a new utility function estimate_boson_corr_spectrum_norms().

    ### SOM 2.0 ###
    from som import estimate_boson_corr_spectrum_norms
    # Given a correlator of boson-like operators $\chi$ defined on any
    # supported mesh, return a list of spectrum normalization constants
    # $\mathcal{N} = \pi \chi(i\Omega = 0)$.
    norms = estimate_boson_corr_spectrum_norms(chi)
    cont = Som(chi, error_bars, kind="BosonCorr", norms=norms)

Deprecation of

In order to accommodate for new features, method has been declared deprecated, and its functionality has been split between a few new methods.

### SOM 1.x ###**params)
### SOM 2.0 ###

# Accumulate particular solutions.

# Compute the final solution using the procedure from SOM 1.x.

# or

# Compute the final solution using the Consistent Constraints procedure
# new to SOM 2.0.

Passing cc_update=True to Som.accumulate() will enable the Consistent constraints update that may speed up search for better particular solutions. A bunch of Som.accumulate()’s parameters named cc_update_* give a means to fine-tune behavior of the CC updates.

Calling Som.accumulate() multiple times will incrementally extend the pool of accumulated particular solutions. Som.clear() will remove all accumulated solutions.

In SOM 1.x, was selecting good particular solutions based on a criterion established by parameter adjust_l_good_d. With SOM 2.0, selection of good particular solutions is performed as part of algorithms implemented in Som.compute_final_solution() and Som.compute_final_solution_cc(). They both accept arguments good_chi_rel and good_chi_abs, and select good solution based on values of the “goodness of fit” \(\chi^2\)-functional associated with those solutions. A good solution \(A_j\) must simultaneously satisfy \(\chi[A_j] \leq\) good_chi_abs and \(\chi[A_j] \leq \min_{j'}(\chi[A_{j'}])\times\) good_chi_rel.

Som.compute_final_solution_cc() constructs the final solution using a sophisticated iterative optimization procedure with many adjustable parameters. It can result in a smoother spectral function, which can optionally be biased towards a user-provided default model.

Automatic adjustment of the number of global updates per solution (\(F\)), which used to be one of’s features, is now available as method Som.adjust_f().

### SOM 2.0 ###

# Adjust the number of global updates.
f = cont.adjust_f(energy_window=(-5, 5))
# Accumulate particular solutions.
cont.accumulate(energy_window=(-5, 5), f=f, **acc_params)

Post-processing of spectral functions

Due to changes in the TRIQS Green’s function library, it is no longer possible to use the g << cont syntax. Furthermore, information about the high frequency expansion (tail) coefficients has been separated from Green’s function container objects. The following snippets show the updated syntax for recovering the real-frequency versions of observables, reconstructing the imaginary time/Matsubara frequency/Legendre coefficient data and computing the tail.

### SOM 1.x ###

# Recover the real-frequency counterpart of 'g' and its tail.
g_w = GfReFreq(window=energy_window, n_points=n_w, indices=g.indices)
g_w << cont

# Reconstruct the input quantity from the computed spectral function.
g_rec = g.copy()
g_rec << cont
### SOM 2.0 ###

from som import fill_refreq, compute_tail, reconstruct

# Recover the real-frequency counterpart of 'g'.
g_w = GfReFreq(window=energy_window, n_points=n_w, indices=g.indices)
fill_refreq(g_w, cont)

# Compute the tail of 'g_w'.
tail = compute_tail(tail_max_order, cont)

# Reconstruct an observable from the computed spectral function.
g_rec = g.copy()
reconstruct(g_rec, cont)

By default, fill_refreq() uses binning, which can be disabled by passing with_binning=False.

Direct access to spectral functions

A few new attributes added to Som give access to the accumulated particular solutions, the final solution and their respective values of the \(\chi^2\)-functional.

### SOM 2.0 ###

# Extract a list of pairs (accumulated particular solution, its \chi^2) for
# the 0-th diagonal component of the observable.
# This list is local to the calling MPI rank.
part_sols_with_chi2 = cont.particular_solutions(0)

# Minimum of \chi^2 over all accumulated particular solutions
# on all MPI ranks.
chi2_min = cont.objf_min

# List of final solutions, one element per diagonal component of
# the observable.
final_sols =

# List of \chi^2 values for the final solutions, one element per diagonal
# component of the observable.
chi2_final = cont.objf_list

All solutions extracted this way are instances of a new class Configuration, which is a collection of Rectangle’s. Configurations (spectral functions) can be iterated over, evaluated at a given value of energy, stored to/loaded from an HDF5 archive.